Basic Blender Hot Keys
from abraxal
WINDOWS HOTKEYS

CTRL+LEFTARROW
. Go to the previous Screen.
CTRL+RIGHTARROW. Go to the next Screen.
CTRL+UPARROW or CTRL+DOWNARROW. Maximise the window or return to the previous window display size.
SHIFT+F4. Change the window to a Data View
SHIFT+F5. Change the window to a 3D Window
SHIFT+F6. Change the window to an IPO Window
SHIFT+F7. Change the window to a Buttons Window
SHIFT+F8. Change the window to a Sequence Window
SHIFT+F9. Change the window to an Outliner Window
SHIFT+F10. Change the window to an Image Window
SHIFT+F11. Change the window to a Text Window
SHIFT+F12. Change the window to an Action Window

UNIVERSAL HOTKEYS
CTRL+LMB. Lasso select: drag the mouse to form a freehand selection area.
SPACE. Open the Toolbox.
TAB. Start or quit EditMode.
F1. Loads a Blender file. Changes the window to a FileWindow.
SHIFT+F1. Appends parts from other files, or loads as Library-data. Changes the window to a FileWindow, making Blender files accessible as a directory.
F2. Writes a Blender file. Change the window to a FileWindow.
SHIFT+F2. Exports the scene as a DXF file
CTRL+F2. Exports the scene as a VRML1 file
F3. Writes a picture (if a picture has been rendered). The fileformat is as indicated in the DisplayButtons. The window becomes a File Select Window.
CTRL+F3 (ALT+CTRL+F3 on MacOSX). Saves a screendump of the active window. The fileformat is as indicated in the DisplayButtons. The window becomes a FileWindow.
SHIFT+CTRL+F3. Saves a screendump of the whole Blender screen. The fileformat is as indicated in the DisplayButtons. The window becomes a FileWindow.
F4. Displays the Logic Context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F5. Displays the Shading Context (if a Buttons Window is available), Light, Material or World Sub-contexts depends on active object.
F6. Displays the Shading Context and Texture Sub-context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F7. Displays the Object Context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F8. Displays the Shading Context and World Sub-context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F9. Displays the Editing Context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F10. Displays the Scene Context (if a ButtonsWindow is available).
F11. Hides or shows the render window.
F12. Starts the rendering from the active camera.
LEFTARROW. Go to the previous frame.
SHIFT+LEFTARROW. Go to the first frame.
RIGHTARROW. Go to the next frame.
SHIFT+RIGHTARROW. Go to the last frame.
UPARROW. Go forward 10 frames.
DOWNARROW. Go back 10 frames.
ALT+A. Change the current Blender window to Animation Playback mode. The cursor changes to a counter.
ALT+SHIFT+A. The current window, plus all 3DWindows go into Animation Playback mode.
IKEY. Insert Key menu. This menu differs from window to window.
JKEY. Toggle the render buffers. Blender allows you to retain two different rendered pictures in memory.
CTRL+O. Opens the last saved file.
QKEY. OK? Quit Blender. This key closes Blender. Blender quit is displayed in the console if Blender is properly closed.
ALT+CTRL+T. TimerMenu. This menu offers access to information about drawing speed. The results are displayed in a pop-up.
CTRL+U. OK, Save User defaults. The current project (windows, objects, etc.), including UserMenu settings are written to the default file that will be loaded every time you start Blender or set it to defaults by pressing CTRL+X.
CTRL+W. Write file. This key combination allows you to write the Blender file without opening a FileWindow.
ALT+W. Write Videoscape file. Changes the window to a FileWindow.
CTRL+X. Erase All. Everything (except the render buffer) is erased and released. The default scene is reloaded.
CTRL+Y. Redo. Mac users may use CMD+Y.
CTRL+Z. Undo. Mac users may use CMD+Z.
SHIFT+CTRL+Z. Redo. Mac users may use SHIFT+CMD+Z
 
OBJECT MODE HOTKEYS 
HOME. All Objects in the visible layer are displayed completely, centered in the window.
PAGEUP. Select the next Object Key. If more than one Object Key is selected, the selection is shifted up cyclically. Only works if the AnimButtons->DrawKey is ON for the Object.
SHIFT+PAGEUP. Adds to selection the next Object Key.
PAGEDOWN. Select the previous Object Key. If more than one Object Key is selected, the selection is shifted up cyclically. Only works if the AnimButtons->DrawKey is ON for the Object.
SHIFT+PAGEDOWN. Adds to selection the previous Object Key.
ACCENT. (To the left of the 1KEY in US keyboard) Select all layers.
SHIFT+ACCENT. Revert to the previous layer setting.
TAB. Start/stop EditMode. Alternative hotkey: ALT+E.
AKEY. Selects/deselects all.
CTRL+A. Apply size and rotation. The rotation and dimensions of the Object are assigned to the ObData (Mesh, Curve, etc.). At first glance, it appears as if nothing has changed, but this can have considerable consequences for animations or texture mapping. This is best illustrated by also having the axis of a Mesh Object be drawn (EditButtons->Axis). Rotate the Object and activate Apply. The rotation and dimensions of the Object are 'erased'.
SHIFT+CTRL+A. If the active Object is automatically duplicated (see AnimButtons->DupliFrames or AnimButtons- >Dupliverts), a menu asks Make duplis real?. This option actually creates the Objects. If the active Mesh Object is deformed by a Lattice, a menu asks Apply Lattice deform?. Now the deformation of the Lattice is assigned to the vertices of the Mesh.
SHIFT+A. This is the AddMenu. In fact, it is the ToolBox that starts with the `ADD' option. When Objects are added, Blender starts EditMode immediately if possible.
BKEY. Border Select. Draw a rectangle with the LeftMouse; all Objects within this area are selected, but not made active. Draw a rectangle with the RightMouse to deselect Objects. In orthonormal ViewMode, the dimensions of the rectangle are displayed, expressed as global coordinates, as an extra feature in the lower left corner. In Camera ViewMode, the dimensions that are to be rendered according to the DisplayButtons are displayed in pixel units.
SHIFT+B. Render Border. This only works in Camera ViewMode. Draw a rectangle to render a smaller cut-out of the standard window frame. If the option DisplayButtons->Border is ON, a box is drawn with red and black lines.
CKEY. Centre View. The position of the 3DCursor becomes the new centre of the 3DWindow.
SHIFT+C. CentreZero View. The 3DCursor is set to zero (0,0,0) and the view is changed so that all Objects, including the 3Dcursor, can be displayed. This is an alternative for HOME.
DKEY. Draw mode menu. Allows to select draw modes exactly as the corresponding menu in the 3D viewport header does.
SHIFT+D. Add Duplicate. The selected Objects are duplicated. Grab mode starts immediately thereafter.
ALT+D. Add Linked Duplicate. Of the selected Objects linked duplicates are created. Grab mode starts immediately thereafter.
CTRL+D. Draw the (texture) Image as wire. This option has a limited function. It can only be used for 2D compositing.
ALT+E. Start/stop EditMode. Alternative hotkey: TAB.
FKEY. If selected Object is a mesh Toggles Face selectMode on and off.
CTRL+F. Sort Faces. The faces of the active Mesh Object are sorted, based on the current view in the 3DWindow. The leftmost face first, the rightmost last. The sequence of faces is important for the Build Effect (AnimButtons).
ALT+G. Clears translations, given in Grab mode. The X,Y,Z locations of selected Objects are set to zero.
CTRL+J. Join Objects. All selected Objects of the same type are added to the active Object. What actually happens here is that the ObData blocks are combined and all the selected Objects (except for the active one) are deleted. This is a rather complex operation, which can lead to confusing results, particularly when working with a lot of linked data, animation curves and hierarchies.
KKEY. Show Keys. The DrawKey option is turned ON for all selected Objects. If all of them were already ON, they are all turned OFF.
SHIFT+K. A PopupMenu asks: OK? Show and select all keys. The DrawKey option is turned ON for all selected Objects, and all Object-keys are selected. This function is used to enable transformation of the entire animation system.
LKEY. Makes selected Object local. Makes library linked objects local for the current scene.
MKEY. Moves selected Object(s) to another layer, a pop-up appears. Use LMB to move, use SHIFT+LMB to make the object belong to multiple layers. If the selected Objects have different layers, this is ORed in the menu display. Use ESC to exit the menu. Press the "OK" button or ENTER to change the layer setting. The hotkeys (ALT-)(1KEY, 2KEY, ... - 0KEY) work here as well (see 3DHeader).
CTRL+M. Mirror Menu. It is possible to mirror an Object along the X, Y or Z axis.
NKEY. Number Panel. The location, rotation and scaling of the active Object are displayed and can be modified.
ALT+O. Clear Origin. The `Origin' is erased for all Child Objects, which causes the Child Objects to move to the exact location of the Parent Objects.
SHIFT+O. If the selected Object is a Mesh toggles SubSurf onn/ off. CTRL+1 to CTRL+4 switches to the relative SubSurf level for display purpouses. Rendering SUbSurf level has no HotKey.

should not be created, should be created empty or created and populated.

rotation is exactly linked to the mouse movement. Try moving around the rotation midpoint with the mouse. The rotation pivot point is determined by the state of the 3DWiewport Header buttons. Alternatives for starting this mode:

ALT+R. Clears Rotation. The X,Y,Z rotations of selected Objects are set to zero.
ALT+S. Clears Size. The X,Y,Z dimensions of selected Objects are set to 1.0.
TKEY. Texture space mode. The position and dimensions of the texture space for the selected Objects can be changed in the same manner as described above for Grab and Size mode. To make this visible, the drawingflag EditButtons->TexSpace is set ON. A PopupMenu asks you to select: "Grabber" or "Size".
CTRL+T. Makes selected Object(s) track the Active Object. Old track method was Blender default tracking before version 2.30. The new method is the Constrain Track, this creates a fully editable constraint on the selected object targeting the active Object.
ALT+T. Clears old style Track. Constraint track is removed as all constrains are.
UKEY. Makes Object Single User, the inverse operation of Link
VKEY. Switches in/out of Vertex Paint Mode.
ALT+V. Object-Image Aspect. This hotkey sets the X and Y dimensions of the selected Objects in relation to the dimensions of the Image Texture they have. Use this hotkey when making 2D Image compositions and multi-plane designs to quickly place the Objects in the appropriate relationship with one another.
WKEY. Opens Object Booleans Menu.
XKEY. Erase Selected? Deletes selected objects.
ZKEY. Toggles Solid Mode on/off.
SHIFT+Z. Toggles Shaded Mode on/off.
ALT+Z. Toggles Textured Mode on/off.

[edit] Edit Mode - General

Again, Most of these hotkeys are useful in the 3D Viewport when in Edit Mode, but many works on other Blender Object, so they are summarized here. Many Object Mode keys works in Edit mode too, but on the selected vertices or control points; among these Grab, Rotate, Scale and so on. These hotkeys are not repeated here.

TAB or ALT+E. This button starts and stops Edit Mode.
CTRL+TAB. Switches between Vertex Select, Edge Select, and Face Select modes. Holding SHIFT while clicking on a mode will allow you to combine modes.
AKEY. Select/Unselect all.
BKEY+BKEY. Circle Select. If you press BKEY a second time after starting Border Select, Circle Select is invoked. It works as described above. Use NUM+ or NUM- or MW to adjust the circle size. Leave Circle Select with RMB or ESC.
CTRL+H. With vertices selected, this creates a "Hook" object. Once a hook is selected, CTRL+H brings up an options menu for it.
NKEY. Number Panel. Simpler than the Object Mode one, in Edit Mode works for Mesh, Curve, Surface: The location of the active vertex is displayed.
OKEY. Switch in/out of Proportional Editing.
SHIFT+O. Toggles between Smooth and Sharp Proportional Editing.
PKEY. SeParate. You can choose to make a new object with all selected vertices, edges, faces and curves or create a new object from each separate group of interconnected vertices from a popup. Note that for curves you cannot separate connected control vertices. This operation is the opposite of Join (CTRL+J).
CTRL+P. Make Vertex Parent. If one object (or more than one) is/are selected and the active Object is in Edit Mode with 1 or 3 vertices selected then the Object in Edit Mode becomes the Vertex Parent of the selected Object(s). If only 1 vertex is selected, only the location of this vertex determines the Parent transformation; the rotation and dimensions of the Parent do not play a role here. If three vertices are selected, it is a `normal' Parent relationship in which the 3 vertices determine the rotation and location of the Child together. This method produces interesting effects with Vertex Keys. In EditMode, other Objects can be selected with CTRL+RMB.
CTRL+S. Shear. In EditMode this operation enables you to make selected forms `slant'. This always works via the horizontal screen axis.
UKEY. Undo. When starting Edit Mode, the original ObData block is saved and can be returned to via UKEY. Mesh Objects have better Undo, see next section.
WKEY. Specials PopupMenu. A number of tools are included in this PopupMenu as an alternative to the Edit Buttons. This makes the buttons accessible as shortcuts, e.g. EditButtons-> Subdivide is also `WKEY, 1KEY'.
SHIFT+W. Warp. Selected vertices can be bent into curves with this option. It can be used to convert a plane into a tube or even a sphere. The centre of the circle is the 3DCursor. The mid-line of the circle is determined by the horizontal dimensions of the selected vertices. When you start, everything is already bent 90 degrees. Moving the mouse up or down increases or decreases the extent to which warping is done. By zooming in/out of the 3Dwindow, you can specify the maximum degree of warping. The CTRL limiter increments warping in steps of 5 degrees.
 
EDIT MODE- GENERAL HOT KEYS
TAB or ALT+E. This button starts and stops Edit Mode.
CTRL+TAB. Switches between Vertex Select, Edge Select, and Face Select modes. Holding SHIFT while clicking on a mode will allow you to combine modes.
AKEY. Select/Unselect all.
BKEY+BKEY. Circle Select. If you press BKEY a second time after starting Border Select, Circle Select is invoked. It works as described above. Use NUM+ or NUM- or MW to adjust the circle size. Leave Circle Select with RMB or ESC.
CTRL+H. With vertices selected, this creates a "Hook" object. Once a hook is selected, CTRL+H brings up an options menu for it.
NKEY. Number Panel. Simpler than the Object Mode one, in Edit Mode works for Mesh, Curve, Surface: The location of the active vertex is displayed.
OKEY. Switch in/out of Proportional Editing.
SHIFT+O. Toggles between Smooth and Sharp Proportional Editing.
PKEY. SeParate. You can choose to make a new object with all selected vertices, edges, faces and curves or create a new object from each separate group of interconnected vertices from a popup. Note that for curves you cannot separate connected control vertices. This operation is the opposite of Join (CTRL+J).
CTRL+P. Make Vertex Parent. If one object (or more than one) is/are selected and the active Object is in Edit Mode with 1 or 3 vertices selected then the Object in Edit Mode becomes the Vertex Parent of the selected Object(s). If only 1 vertex is selected, only the location of this vertex determines the Parent transformation; the rotation and dimensions of the Parent do not play a role here. If three vertices are selected, it is a `normal' Parent relationship in which the 3 vertices determine the rotation and location of the Child together. This method produces interesting effects with Vertex Keys. In EditMode, other Objects can be selected with CTRL+RMB.
CTRL+S. Shear. In EditMode this operation enables you to make selected forms `slant'. This always works via the horizontal screen axis.
UKEY. Undo. When starting Edit Mode, the original ObData block is saved and can be returned to via UKEY. Mesh Objects have better Undo, see next section.
WKEY. Specials PopupMenu. A number of tools are included in this PopupMenu as an alternative to the Edit Buttons. This makes the buttons accessible as shortcuts, e.g. EditButtons-> Subdivide is also `WKEY, 1KEY'.
SHIFT+W. Warp. Selected vertices can be bent into curves with this option. It can be used to convert a plane into a tube or even a sphere. The centre of the circle is the 3DCursor. The mid-line of the circle is determined by the horizontal dimensions of the selected vertices. When you start, everything is already bent 90 degrees. Moving the mouse up or down increases or decreases the extent to which warping is done. By zooming in/out of the 3Dwindow, you can specify the maximum degree of warping. The CTRL limiter increments warping in steps of 5 degrees.
 
These are the basic hot keys that beginners should know and read over when using Blender because Blender uses lots of hot keys and is hard to remember.